segunda-feira, 9 de julho de 2012

How to plant in our house

1 - I will choose a place where the sun happens the least a parcel of the day, that either plain or lightly inclined and that is moved away from private and sewers.
2 - It cleans the chosen place, removing the rocks, twigs and the weeds. 3 - It makes fluffy and it prepares the land to plant the seeds. It follows the following ratio: land mixed approximately 10 liters of organic seasoning and 200 grams of flour of bone for each square meter.
4 - It spreads the land for the seedbed and approximately makes hollows of 5 cm of depth.
5 - To planting, it sees in the packings of the seeds which it is the distanciamento (space enters the seeds) more indicated and deposits them in the hollows.
6 - It closes the hollows with land and it waters the days all, in the end of the afternoon.

sábado, 11 de junho de 2011

Tips to cultivate vegetables

 Horta Caseia One horta can be a perfect addition to its landscape. The organic culture of its vegetables assures a healthful production and you it saves in the high prices of vegetables cultivated organicly in would mercearia. When thinking about as to initiate one horta, the first thing is the election of the seeds and the place. • Horta in a sunny place makes its and starts to cultivate food of the spring at the beginning. It continues planting during the summer in order to soon have something cool and always flavorful for spoon. • It makes horta next to the kitchen. Of this form it will be easy to leave and spoon some things that you need and you also will be able to watch its horta for the window. The harvest of the tomatoes must be made later that they are red, this is the best form to guarantee that they are in the point. • It humidifies the seeds so that they germinate more fast. Before germinating, the seeds need to be humid, as rains had been received from spring. As soon as they become swelled and gordinhas, the small embryo inside of them starts to grow. Seeds as broccolis, cabbage and rúcula use the humidity efficiently and quickly germinate without the necessity to humidify before. However, the vegetables of germination slower as the seeds of parsley and turnip are benefited of the umedecimento. It humidifies the seeds with water to the ambient temperature during some hours or the night all, however if it does not forget them. It drains and it plants them immediately. • It uses full water tents in return of vegetables just planted to protect them of the cold. You can buy cheap plastic leves of hardwired pipes that, when full of water, they form walls auto-portantes in return of the catch-crops. The transparent walls allow that to the sun reach the plants while the warm water for the sun remains morna during the night. • Instead of planting directly in horta, it starts with great changes cultivated in the window or bought in fisheries to get resulted faster, mainly in places of more cold climate. This strategy functions very well with fragile vegetables as tomatoes for salada and pepper-malagueta, that delay to ripen and are sensible to the cold. It looks to changes cultivated in great containers (it verifies if it has a strong set of roots and developed well) with healthful green leves and strong constitution. It prevents fine and supergrown changes. It remembers that nor all the changes need to be transplantadas. Cucumbers, morangas, abobrinhas, pumpkins and cabaças are developed better when planted directly or from young changes planted carefully to minimize damages to the roots. • It plants long changes deeper (until the first set of leves) to supply a good start to the outdoors. The planted changes inside of house or in full greenhouses (local with insufficient illumination) can develop caules weak, barren that they will go to tumble in the garden. Since that they grow from only caule (instead of a set of leves) and are planted in one ground drained well, the dumbs can be submerged a little more deeply to supply more support. For flexible changes of caules as the tomatoes, it is better to use horizontal ditches instead of vertical lines. He is warmer and it better has ventilation of what in ground deeper, encouraging to a good growth of the roots and faster development. • The cardboard coil keeps the lizards moved away from the changes using of the coils of hygienical paper. The lizards, that are lizards of butterflies, crawl for the surface of the ground, eating the bases tenras of caules of young changes e cutting the sprouts in the roots. After to plant, places a cardboard pipe of 7,5 cm of length in return of the dumb one. It pressures the pipe for low until it is embedded half, hindering of this form the underground attacks. As soon as the dumb one will have grown, you can remove the cardboard. • It tears the upper/lower part of the containers of turf when planting its vegetables. These containers, that must be degraded when submerged in the ground, nor always if break during the first year where they are planted. This makes with that the roots are imprisoned in its interior. To get worse the situation still more, if the edge of the turf to be above of the surface of the ground, it can dry and steal humidity of the ground and the roots to its return. The problems with the containers of turf can be decided with easiness tearing the upper/lower part of the container before planting. This aid to eliminate the danger to dry and in to the roots a way to escape if the container if not to degrade. • It plants in the vertical line to save space. Instead of leaving beanses, cucumbers, cantaloupses and morangas if esparramarem in the land, you can leave that they go up for a treliça or a caramanchão. • It adds to height to horta with a tent covered with trepadeiras of beanses and peas. This economizer of space functions in similar way to a treliça, however he has a different appearance. It makes the tent with six or eight moored poles of 1,80 of height in the tip. It plants beanses, beans-of-rasp or peas in return of each pole and they will go to roll themselves until the top. • It places in the lateral of the plants of long production as tomatoes, eggplants and peppers, a well balanced fertilizer to keep producing them. After the first harvest, spreads granulated fertilizer in return of the plants, later it digs the land of light and it waters well. The extra nutrients can encourage to the growth of new flowers and the development of the fruits after this. • It uses periodical covered with straw enters the rows of horta to eliminate harmful grass and to hold back humidity. This dynamic pair functions better of what each one separately. In the end of the culture station, it digs the paper and the straw in the ground to degrade. • It plants cantaloupses and cucumbers in the stack of composition. They can grow of any form if you to play the fruits in the stack in the autumn there. Rich composites in nutrients, humidity and heat seem to have optimum effect in the trepadeiras of cantaloups and cucumber. • It extends the station of harvest in the autumn with cultures of cabbage, borecole of Brussels and broccolis with a straw layer. Although it has never been in fashion, the straw conserves the heat efficiently. It places packs or stacks of straw in return of the plants, leaving the opened south side for the sun. Treated in such a way, these of course resistant plants to the cold can remain in good conditions in the end of the same autumn or in the winter in amenos climates. Beanses The beanses do not tolerate cold. If you chose the type of trepadeira, you she can roll them for top in tents and pérgulas to get a beautiful garden. The beanses of the Scarlet type to runner have pretty flowers and eatable beanses, the beanses of rope and rasp are favourite in all the places. Cucumbers and morangas You can find these dwarfed vegetables of the trepadeira type for treliças or formats that grow in vases or small spaces. The pumpkins need much more space and a bigger time of culture, then they can not be indicated for some gardeners. None of these plants tolerates cold. Eggplants With its purple flowers and its colored fruits, the eggplants are pretty in any garden. Fruits exist purple, white, striped and red with formats even though prolongated or round. The preferences of the eggplants are similar to the ones of peppers. Culture of lettuce, pepper and tomatoe It cultivates lettuce in the spring or autumn to have a delicious entrance of salada and adds directly to salada in the summer delicious peppers and tomatoes harvested of its horta. Lettuce The lettuce grows during the cold time in the spring or autumn. In places exactly pressed, it will produce leves that could be used, however the plants grow better when spaced. In seedbeds, one embroiders or lettuce underbrush has double function. The leves can be green or red, crespas or smooth, depending on the culture. It produces lettuce in the end of the autumn, winter and beginning of spring cultivating immune varieties to the cold as the Arctic King or North Pole and creating a place of culture sheltered for them: • seedbeds raised with strengthened floating coverings can supply to protection to the cold and light frosts of the beginning to the way of the spring and half it to the end it autumn, or same in the winter in amenos climates; • structures for cold, warm for the sun become possible to at the beginning cultivate lettuce of the spring and end of the same autumn or in the winter. The structures for cold are translucent rectangular boxes of approximately 60 cm of width, 1,20 m of length and 45 cm of height. The superior part possesss hinges to open in way that you can protect the plants inside or cool them in sunny days. It plants the seeds or changes of lettuce in the structure and closes the cover to keep the heat; • a hot seedbed, that is a structure for more advanced cold, is an excellent place for the winter lettuce. It installs a handle of heating under the structure for cold. It covers with wire screen to prevent damages to the handle and covers with a mixed sand layer with composition; • to extend the lettuce harvest, it removes leves biggest of the external part of the plant and leaves new internal leves to continue growing. When the spring climate starts to be hot, you needs to make the inverse one. Cut the entire plant before it starts to make the flower connecting rod (a called condition blockade) and is bitter; • it gets the double of harvest planting one horta of lettuce and tomatoe in a container of 45 the 60 cm of width. You can spoon the lettuce when it grow and leave an extra space for the tomatoes. He makes thus: he fulls the container with a humid mixture of 1/3 of comp

What I can plant in a small apartment?

It never has space of less for the life, any cantinho aired that it receives, the least, 4 hours of light per day can turn a seedbed - it is alone to know to choose what to plant in it. “When the available space for the plantation is very small e is used receiving with about 15 cm of depth, must be chosen temperos and vegetables”, affirms Claudenir Mariano Da Silva, specialist in organic horticulture and professor of the Horta Model of the Park Chico Mendes in Osasco. It explains that, in these conditions, he is not possible plantar vegetables and roots, that they need more depth. Two feet of chive, good option for vases But place for a bigger vase with depth will be had of, at least 25 cm, is possible to cultivate some vegetables, as beetroot, onion, turnip and cucumber; already in containers with depth from 30 cm, carrot, chuchu, cauliflower, chili and tomatoe go well, as it indicates cartilha of the course of jardinagem of the Secretariat of the Green and the Environment of São Paulo. “And if you will be able to have a vase of 50 cm of diameter and 50 of depth, can plant some fruits, as orange, Rome and jabuticaba”, say Claudenir. Also he is possible plantar some fruits in lesser containers, but as bonsais organic. In a common gardening, of about 40 cm of length, they fit up to three types of temperos, as parsley coentro and chive, or three feet of lettuce. However, not to need to buy vases, the horticultor of a tip of planting in a lying bottle pet of 2 liters - it is enough to cut one of its laterals, that will be the “mouth” of the vase, and to make some punctures in the other, that will be its base. There two types of temperos fit or a lettuce foot. Seeds of smooth lettuce Way to make To start organic its horta of leves and temperos, you goes to need only the seeds that to choose, how many receiving to want (bottles pet, vases, gardenings, caixotes wooden or until old buckets), prepared land and some material for draining, as gravel and sand. “I do not recommend the adubada land purchase, education my pupils to give life to the land that will be to the disposal”, Claudenir counts. “To make this it is very simple, it is enough to mix organic composition (fact from the compostagem of organic food remaining portions) or humos of earthworm to a land `morta' of abrupt declivity”, says. “Had to the limited volume of the vase, the ground of the container must be rich in nutrients and also sufficiently porous, therefore, with the time, it leads to one high concentration of roots, demanding one raised oxygen suppliment and a fast carbonic gas removal”, explains cartilha of the city hall. To initiate the plantation, first, it covers the deep one of the container with the material for draining. After that, it fulls the remaining space with prepared land. It makes a well flat hole (or how many to fit, to a distance of, at least, 10 cm one of the other), it places some seeds, it covers them with a bit of land and makes the first irrigation. These changes of lettuce will be replantadas in a bigger land. If they will be to grow in the gardening, plants only 3 or 4 spaced changes To know when to water is intuitivo of what many imagine: it waters when to notice that the land starts to dry, preventing the water excess and keeping the ground always humid - over all, for the lettuce, that demands water sufficiently. Soon, now horta is alone to follow the growth of its

Cultivate vegetables

As to cultivate vegatables We do not need to live in the field to have the gostosa satisfaction to produce part of foods gifts in our table. Where to plant? In the yard of house or the garden, in varandas and drawn, at last, in any space where it has light, water and land. Some plants require direct insolation, others prefer a stocking-shade. But, in the generality, all need, at least, five hours of daily, direct or indirect light. How to plant and to prepare the land? In the yard and/or garden, it cleans the area first and it removes, after that, a land layer with a handspan of depth. It fills the socket with seasoning or organic composition, in the ratio of twenty liters for square meter. In the case of its house not to make use of a yard with land, provides vases, caixotes or cans that have, at least, twenty centimeters of depth. It prepares these containers in accordance with the following instructions: • It makes punctures in the deep one of the container to drain the water. • It covers, to follow, the punctures with cacos of a broken adobe roofing tile or vase. • Over the cacos, it places, successively, a pebble layer (of two the five centimeters) and another one of washed sand (of river or construction). • Over the previous layers, it makes use a good land layer fofa, prepared with organic composition or esterco tanned well, wooden vegetal land, serralho and seasoning of earthworm. One remembers that, in case that the composition not yet is mature, the option also exists to manage húmus in the ground, in the ratio of two liters for each square meter.

Learn to cultivate horganic and healthy food at home

It learns to make Hortas Organic and to cultivate healthful foods You have one cantinho in the yard or varanda of the apartment that catches sun at least some hours of the day? Then the good notice is that you can cultivate its foods of organic form, in its same house without very effort. If you will have space to make a seedbed in the garden or the yard, excellent! If he will not have, not if he despairs: of the one to also cultivate in vases and gardenings! Attention for our important tips: To plant in vases or gardenings: Step 1: Terço of the vase or gardening with pedriscos or expanded clay full one to facilitate the draining. One remembers that the vases must have punctures for draining in the deep one. Step 2: It places in the vase the following mixture: 2 parts of common land, 1 organic composition part and 1 part of húmus, fulling almost until the edge of the vase. Step 3: It spreads a little of sand. As to plant: For changes of temperos (parsley, chive, manjerona), to locate them in intercalated way, in triangle form. For hortaliças it is possible to use dumb also or to plant from seeds, in this in case that, it follows the instructions of the packing. When to use changes, remembers fincar props to assist the vertical growth, especially in the case of the tomatoes. The organic composition must be made with esterco tanned of animals (to prevent I smell and insects) and vegetable remaining portions (vegetable rinds and fruits, small twigs, leves or cut gram). If it will not have as to make the composition in house, is possible to acquire ready, in store of farming products. To cultivate hortaliças in seedbeds: Step 1: To dig the ground with hoe or shovel, being left the well untied land and fofa. Step 2: To mix organic composition in the land already dug and fofa well. Step 3: To use a called tool wooden rake, to smooth the seedbeds and to give rounded off form. Step 4: To leave the seedbed 20 centimeters above of the level of the land. Step 5: The width of the seedbed must be of in the maximum 1,20 m. As to plant: To mark the espaçamentos (example: the lettuce feet must be two palmos one of the other). To locate the changes in intercalated way, in triangle form, to prevent the erosion. In the case of seeds, to mix them with sand and to spread with the hand on the ridges of the seedbed in the way more possible uniform. To water after that and at least a time to the day. If it will be a hot region, must be watered two times to the day until the changes to emerge. Attention: Húmus in the education of horta must be used composed always organic.

Cultivate biological foods

To learn to cultivate biological foods he is our new projecto. In the last sunday I ordered an email to the chamber of Bristol, saying that it was interested in cultivating biological foods and that would like to receive information on the lease hortas. In the friday I received the reply, suggesting that it entered here in contact with the coordinator of a small farm close. Thus I made and today of morning I was to visit the land. As always, I took the photographic machine! One of the first parcels that vi were this, where it goes to be construido, for all, a lake, for all. This goes to be mine " vizinho" of the side. In it I sing inferior of the right side can see cantinho of the container for the compostagem (she opens a notebook of support to the professor on biological domestic compostagem and hortas). E is here: " meu" land small piece to cultivate, with one " house-of-bath biológica" to deep and an annex where to the tools or agricultural utensils are kept. Now the challenge is to thus transform it into any thing. It has 15 months, this land parcel was completely wild. Now she is full of strawberries, garlic, borecoles, lettuces, potatoes, tomatoe, etc. In the center is a hen house where they live about 10 hens; they put 8 or 9 eggs per day. E is the orchard with apple trees and small tables for picnics here. The orchard is for all. The small farm is divided in 72 parcels; the number includes the areas common, as the future lake and the orchard. I had luck because it seems that now already it only has a parcel to rent. I find that the others already are all busy ones. Some parcels, as this, more is cultivated of what others. It has people that they rent but later if calhar they do not have free time to be dedicated to this. Others more are organisadas and go making its experiences. Projecto has an association which I go myself to join. The advantages are several: 50% of discounting in the seeds, social access the equipment and materials, library, events, etc. and us we go to need all the possible aid because we do not perceive nothing of this! But to make it is that if it learns therefore the important one is to put the hands in the mass… that is, in the land! This way to recoup green spaces in the cities already arrived . I read in the Internet that some autarchies are associates the projectos of this type to help to revitalize the urban nature. E will have been interested but they will not have access to a land, can always make one horta in varanda, especially in much sun!

To cultivate at home

To cultivate foods in house gains impulse with interest for organic M2 imagines a space of 10. It seems little? Therefore this is the necessary area so that a person if becomes self-sufficient in the production of vegetables and vegetables. To bank agriculturist and to cultivate lettuces, eggplants and same fruits in varanda of apartment or in garden of house is activity that received a new impulse with the increase from the interest for the organic products, that are produced without agrotóxicos, but still costs well more than planted foods of traditional form. " We have about 500 customers in the capital, and almost all have one horta" , it says. Also it has people, that they decide to on account give to beginning to the miniplantation and risk. " I was to the Ceagesp, I asked for tips to the salesmen and started plantar" , it counts, who gave to beginning its " cantinho orgânico" , as she says, in December of the last year. She started planting in the yard of the house, the Morumbi (south zone of São Paulo), basil, chive, mint, tomatoe-cherry, Rome, mexerica and pepper. Shortly afterwards, she discovered a foot of common tomatoe --she was the cook who, empolgada with the idea of horta, planted on account proper. She did not delay so that the driver of the family decided to plant a pineapple foot. " Horta is almost comunitária" , the promoter of events plays. Already in the case of it is that she was occupying, with its horta, communitarian spaces. Inhabitant of an apartment of two rooms in the River, it possesss a Bonsai of jabuticaba and also she is cultivating miniatured sleeve trees, orange and tangerina, beyond pepper, chive, salsinha, arruda, rosemary and guaco. When the space in the apartment if became insufficient, Yoko started to occupy an area of the building where deferred payment. Later, it started to cultivate in the small farm of a friend, cassava-yellow, sleeve, lemon-rose, lemon-China, avocado, chestnut, date, carrot, beetroot and chili. To make use of more space, it decided to change itself for a condominium in Great Vargem , where it intends to plant species still more. " Who plant to vender has haste and of the nutrients in excess for the vegetable, so that it grows quickly. Already between the organic ones that they are vendidos in the markets, I see that many harvest the plant when it still is very young. For me, 30% are only really good. When people cultivate in house, the flavor are completely different, well more concentrado" , she says. Who search really to run away from agrotóxicos, integrates the program of urban agriculture , affirms that the indicated foods more are the strawberry, the tomatoe and batatinha, that they costumam to receive a very great amount from agricultural defensives in the traditional culture. Nor everything is flowers, however, in the culture caretaker. The products, even so generally are fibrosos and with accented flavor more that of the conventionals, also can suffer a reduction from size of up to 20%, according to , technician  " The plant is lesser from what the cultivated ones of the form established in the memorandum of understanding therefore do not receive seasoning chemical, that makes the plant to grow faster. A lettuce grows between 20 and 30 days, with chemical seasoning. In a organic plantation, the leaf grows more slowly, is most structuralized, what it accents the flavor. The tomatoe does not go to be redondinho as of feira" , it informs  responsible biologist and for horta , that offers to courses for the culture of vegetables and vegetables in house. Moreover, the fact of them to be bred in urban environment does not hinder the proliferation of plagues, as fungo oídio, the pulgão and cochonilha. To fight the first one, a solution caretaker is to mix of 50 ml the 200 ml of milk in one liter of water and to spray the mixture in the plant.